The Focus (18-24 units)
While the Core Courses in the major ensure that students acquire a substantive, interdisciplinary understanding of Environmental Studies, the Focus ensures that students also have training in a traditional discipline. In the Focus, students apply the knowledge gained in the interdisciplinary Core to specific fields. All Foci include in-depth study within a single field or discipline and contain at least 10 upper-division units. In addition to the following foci, students may design a Focus in consultation with an ES advisor. Self-designed foci must be approved by the ES Program Committee.
All human activity depends upon energy, chemical systems, and the earth’s elemental cycles, and our dependence upon these systems has had profound affects on our environment. The water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles, for example, reflect the impact of human activity. Addressing environmental problems from a chemical perspective necessitates generating data about the properties of chemical systems, interpreting those data, and understanding the study of matter. In the Chemistry Focus, students study techniques for chemical analysis, the complexities of matter, the earth’s elemental cycles, and electrochemistry, and gain experience conducting chemical analyses and interpreting scientific data. The Chemistry Focus provides students with a solid base of course work that enables exploration of crucial concerns affecting the physical environment.
Labs associated with the following courses are also required. Students completing the Chemistry Focus may substitute for CHE-302 Organic Chemistry II either CHE-412- 412L Biochemistry or CHE-420-420L Inorganic Chemistry.
- CHE-141 General Chemistry I & Lab
- CHE-142 General Chemistry II & Lab
- CHE-252 Analytical Chemistry I & Lab
- CHE-301 Organic Chemistry I & Lab
- CHE-302 Organic Chemistry II & Lab
- CHE-451 Analytical Chemistry II & Lab
Understanding the biology of organisms, populations, and ecosystems is essential to addressing environmental issues. The ability to collect and interpret biological data reliably and to gather and interpret relevant scientific literature allows for the critical evaluation of ecological issues and contributes to sound environmental decision making. In the Conservation Biology Focus, students gain both a conceptual framework and the laboratory and field experience needed to understand the biological aspects of environmental issues.
Labs associated with the following courses are also required. To ensure that students have adequate quantitative preparation, they should complete MAT-212, Advanced Statistical Methods.
- BIO-120 Frontiers in Biology & Lab
- BIO-220 Organismal Biology & Lab
BIO-330 Cell Biology & Lab
- BIO-260 Diversity of Life & Lab
- BIO-306 Conservation Biology
- ENV-350 Introduction to Geographic Information Systems (GIS) & Lab
- One lab course in Systematics
- One lab course in Ecology
Environmental problems transcend political and cultural boundaries. Addressing global environmental issues, such as planetary warming and the pollution of oceans and air, requires an understanding of the historical, international political, economic, and cultural contexts in which they are embedded. The Global Studies Focus introduces students to the challenges of international policy-making and global economic systems, the varieties of cultural perspectives on environmental issues, the impacts of development on local environments, the influences of nations and cultures on one another, and the complex relationships between cultural traditions and international politics.
Students completing the Global Studies Focus must demonstrate a competency in a foreign language through the intermediate level (i.e., MFL-211-212 (French); MFL-223-224 (German), or MFL-232-233 (Spanish); for other languages, see an ES advisor). Students are also encouraged to complete ENV-350 Introduction to Geographic Information Systems and Lab.
- ATH-305 Culture Change & the World System
- HIS-106 The History of World Civilization: Modern
- POE-120 International Politics
- POE-263 Introduction to Political Economy
- POE-351 Politics in Developing Countries
POE-380 International Political Economy
- Two Regional and National Case Studies.
Students are encouraged to explore different geographic regions (Latin America, Asia, and Europe) and social science disciplines (anthropology, history, and political economy).
Additional Social Sciences courses, winter session classes, winter C of I overseas study trips, or immersion study abroad may satisfy the requirement. Consult with your ES advisor. Choose two courses from:
- ATH-249 Natives of South America
- ATH-253 Contemporary Mexican Society & Culture
- HIS-301.1 & 301.2 China: Global Development & Local Cultures
- HIS-334 19th Century Europe: the Industrial Nation & Its Discontents
- HIS-338 Modern India
- HIS-343 Religion & the State in Late Imperial China
- HIS-345 Modern China
- HIS-348 20th Century Europe: the Trials of Modernity
- HIS-350 British Empire 1756-1960
- HIS-353 Modern England
- HIS-354 History of Southeast Asia
- HIS-382 Modern Mexico
- HIS-383 Brazil
- HIS-384 Modern Japan
- HIS-385 Cuba & the Caribbean
- HIS-399T.5 Modern Tibet
- POE-302 Economic Development
- POE-372 China & the World
Our values, beliefs, and language relate deeply to environmental issues and attitudes. Similarly, the human imagination and the stories that we tell ourselves reflect and affect the physical environment. Studying the literary tradition allows us to reflect on historical assumptions and understandings about how humans relate to their world. In the Literature Focus, students examine the British, American, and World literary traditions, and study theories concerning how literature makes meaning for readers.
- ENG-204 Techniques of Creative Nonfiction
- ENG-307 Seminar: Origins & Traditions in English Literature
- ENG-308 Seminar: Origins & Traditions of the Literature of the United States
- ENG-309 Seminar: Constructing World Literature
- ENG-325 Introduction to Literary Theory & Criticism
- Two courses from the following (only one of which may have an environmental focus):
With the increasing power of modern science and technology to affect nature, reflections upon the place of humanity in the universe have taken on special urgency. These reflections include questions about the limits of scientific knowledge, the ethical obligations of humans to non-human life and the environment, and technology’s impact on humanity’s self-understanding. The philosophy emphasis enables a student to examine these and other issues thoughtfully by introducing the most important ideas in Western philosophy and developing students' abilities in critical analysis, argumentation, and presentation.
- PHI-214 Introduction to Logic
- PHI-310 Ancient Philosophy
- PHI-311 Modern Philosophy
- PHI-331 Ethics
- PHI-498 Philosophy Seminar
- And one upper-division course in non-western Philosophy or Religion.
Political Economy Focus
The study of the environment requires an understanding of natural systems and of values, beliefs and language. The application of this knowledge can lead to important social and environmental change. The focus in Politics and Economics, which emphasizes public policy, allows Environmental Studies majors to apply their knowledge to affect substantive change to their communities, regions, and society. A thorough comprehension of political and economic systems, philosophies, and methods is critical for students to become influential members of society.
- POE-241 Introduction to Public Policy
- POE-250 Introduction to Political Philosophy
- POE-263 Introduction to Political Economy
- POE-299 Evidence, Proof and Knowledge
- POE-498 Senior Seminar
- Two additional 300-level or 400-level POE courses (beyond the one required in
the ES Core). At least one course should have an international emphasis.
In addition to the Foci listed above, students may design a Focus in consultation with an ES advisor. All self-designed Foci must include in-depth study within a single field or discipline and at least 10 upper-division units, and must be approved by the ES Program Committee by the end of the junior year. If you are interested in designing a Focus, see your ES advisor or the Chair of the ES Program.